Molecular biology

  •  RT-PCR,  real-time PCR, micoarray +Taqman, Western blotting, ELISA,  Multiplex mRNA and protein analyses



Microscopic analyses

  • Light and electronmicroscopic immunocytochemistry, (Receptors, Brdu, c-fos, spine synapse stereology etc.)



Neurochemical analyses

  • Real-time neurotransmitter analysis by microelectrode biosensor technique: ATP, Adenosine, Inosine, Glutamate



  • In vivo electrochemistry: 5-HT and glutamate (Pronexus: FAST biosensor technology)
  • HPLC analyses: Glutamate, GABA, noradrenaline, 5-HT, dopamine, purines, endocannabinoids, peptides)




  • Luminescent neurotransmitter assay: ATP, ADP
  • Radiolabelled neurotransmitter assays:[3H]Acetylcholine, [3H]Noradrenaline, [3H]Dopamine, [3H]5-HT, [3H]Glutamate, [3H]GABA
  • Stimulation: electrical, chemical optogenetical






  • Patch clamp technique


Behavior tests

CNS: Open field test, Rotarod test, Amphetamine induced hyperactivity, Forced swim test, Automated tail suspension test, sucrose preference test


  • Pain: Hot plate, Seltzer neuropathic model, CFA-induced inflammatory pain, NTG-induced migraine model



Transgenic mice,  animal disease models

  • p2rx7-/- (Pfizer), p2y12-/- mice (EMMA)
  • Parkinsons disease: in vivo MPTP (subacute MPTP, Tatton-Kish model,  both in mice); in vitro, in vivo rotenone (chronic s.c. in rats)


Cell culture

  • PC12 cells, P2X3 receptor expressing HEK293 cells
  • cell survival assays (LDH, MTT)



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